This recent (1999) report by Charles W. Fowler of the National Marine Fisheries Service was originally published as Proceedings of the Fifth NMFS Stock Assessment Workshop (pps. 25-32 in: V.R. Restrepo, Ed., NOAA Tech. Mem. NMFS-F/SPO-40). Fowler uses Monte Carlo experiments on science, monitoring, and assessment in "1) documenting the normal ranges of natural variation among species and ecosystems, 2) monitoring human progress in finding a position within the normal range of variation, and 3) observing other species and ecosystems as they respond, presumably to regain positions within normal ranges of natural variation in reaction to human change, the change over which we have some control." The report is available in .pdf format, only.