In recent years, there has been some rather positive news about the absolute number of women who are choosing to go to college. In short, there are more of them then ever, and they are moving towards constituting a statistical majority of the college-age population. What many consider to be quite troubling is the fact that relatively few women are able to effectively pursue advanced careers in science and engineering. The National Academy of Sciences has commissioned this recent work, which examines a number of related questions, including how institutions might better recruit and retain female undergraduates and graduate students and also how said institutions might be able to increase the tenure rate for female faculty in these fields of academic endeavor. Published in 2006, the 131-page report is divided into seven chapters, an introduction, and a conclusion. Overall, the report will be most useful to those in higher education administration and outside parties who might be concerned about these trends.