Since the nation of Israel was established at midnight on May 14, 1948, the state has been wrought with conflicts and upheavals of all kinds, from military campaigns against its Arab neighbors, to assassinations, to debates between secular and Orthodox Jews. This in-depth exploration of the modern State of Israel by the Pew Research Center finds that the shaky lines of political dissent are far from resolved. There are, of course, stark differences of opinion about the Israeli state between Arabs, who make up 14 percent of the population, and the rest of the population, nearly all of whom identify as Jewish. There is also conflict, however, between secular Jews and their Orthodox neighbors, and even between the Orthodox and the merely Traditional. Educators who are teaching about this most fascinating and controversial nation in the heart of the Middle East will find excellent information in the Complete Report, the Topline Questionnaire, the Israeli Survey, and other resources, which are all freely downloadable in PDF format from this site.