This report from the RAND organization analyzes results from the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) state test scores of 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. The report is unique in offering comparative data on similar student demographics across states, allowing the authors to examine the impact of state educational reforms on comparable populations. The results show that some states are doing much better than others with similar populations. For instance, states such as Texas and North Carolina showed remarkable gains in scores of minority and disadvantaged students, while states such as California and Louisiana did not. The authors conclude that "the most efficient and effective use of education dollars is to target states with higher proportions of minority and disadvantaged students with funding for lower pupil-teacher ratios, more widespread prekindergarten efforts, and more adequate teaching resources." Teacher salaries did not seem to be a key factor in test score improvements, though the authors suggest this may be a result of the fact that current salary structures do not differentiate between high- and low-quality teachers.