For people interested in the continued dominance of the United States in the worlds of science and technology there is one crucial question: "Is the United States in danger of losing its competitive edge of science and technology?" This was the primary question on the minds of those convened by the RAND Corporation to a meeting in November of 2006. At the request of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, RAND brought together experts in academia, government and the private sector to this meeting. The papers presented at this conference addressed issues such as science policy, globalization, the rise of Asia, and technology diffusion. Edited by Titus Galama and James Hosek, this 162-page document presents these various papers, and for persons interested in the potential policy implications of these matters, this report will be most timely and helpful.