The Scout Report for Science & Engineering - April 14, 1999

The Scout Report for Science & Engineering

April 14, 1999

A Publication of the Internet Scout Project
Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison

The target audience of the new Scout Report for Science & Engineering is faculty, students, staff, and librarians in the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Each biweekly issue offers a selective collection of Internet resources covering topics in the sciences, and related fields such as math and engineering, that have been chosen by librarians and content specialists in the given field of study.

The Scout Report for Science & Engineering is also provided via email once every two weeks. Subscription information is included at the bottom of each issue.

In This Issue


Learning Resources

General Interest

Current Awareness

New Data

In The News


Statistics journals from JSTOR
Publications of the American Statistical Association
Quarterly Publication of the American Statistical Association
Journal of the American Statistical Association
JSTOR: Participating Institutions
The American Statistical Association and JSTOR have provided online access to three journals. Publications of the American Statistical Association is available online from 1888 to 1919 (volumes 1-16). The Quarterly Publication of the American Statistical Association continues the journal with volume 17, which was published in 1921. The Journal of the American Statistical Association picks up after the Quarterly, with issues published from 1922 to 1993 (volumes 18-88). These volumes are searchable by keyword, author, title, and abstract and are available to the hundreds of academic institutions participating in JSTOR. A list of JSTOR participants is provided at the JSTOR site. [SN]
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CalPhotos: California Plants & Habitats
The University of California Berkeley Digital Photo Project has made available this excellent collection of more than 20,000 color images of native and naturalized California plant species and habitats. More than a gallery, the site links each image to scientific information on that species in the CalFlora Database (described in the May 27, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). A series of options allows users to search or browse the image-base by common name, scientific name, location, county, or photographer and to specify type of picture, collection, or color. Search returns include multiple color images of each species, with hyperlinks to scientific or photographic information. This is a spectacular resource for researchers, students, and educators, alike. [LXP]
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Davidson Laboratory: Marine Hydrodynamics & Coastal Engineering
Davidson Laboratory, a hydrodynamic and ocean engineering research center, is part of the Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering department at the Stevens Institute of Technology. This laboratory is focused on marine craft and testing as well as coastal engineering, marine environmental engineering, and underwater acoustics. Ongoing research projects in areas such as marine hydrodynamics, coastal engineering, acoustics, turbulence, and computational fluid dynamics are explained in greater detail in the Departments section. A highlight of the Davidson Laboratory site is the Coastal Monitoring Network section, where users have the opportunity to view and read about the coastal conditions (atmosphere pressure, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at locations such as Avalon, New Jersey. The image and data on this page are updated on a regular basis. Although some parts of this site are under construction, the currently available information makes it worth a visit. [SN]
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Lower Missouri River Ecosystem Initiative
The Lower Missouri River Ecosystem Initiative (LMERI) was founded after the massive 1993 flood "to facilitate information transfer among various federal and state agencies involved in rehabilitation and management of the Lower Missouri River and its floodplain." To meet this goal, the US Geological Survey's Colombia Environmental Research Center (CERC or ECRC), is collaborating with numerous agencies, including the Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and several others including MoRAP, the Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership. The homepage provides information on several research projects, including MoRAP's evaluation of the use of watersheds versus ecoregions for environmental assessment, Historical Channels of the Lower Missouri River, Pallid Sturgeon Ecology, and Benthic Fish and Invertebrate Studies, among others. [LXP]
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Trends Journals Online [.pdf]
Sixteen review journals from Elsevier Trends Journals are now available online to BioMedNet members (BioMedNet membership is free but requires registration) via trends Online. Journals included in this service are Trends in Biochemical Sciences,Trends in Biotechnology,Trends in Cell Biology,Trends in Cognitive Sciences,Drug Discovery Today,Trends in Ecology & Evolution,Trends in Endocrinology,Trends in Genetics,Immunology Today,Trends in Microbiology,Molecular Medicine Today,Trends in Neuroscience,Parasitology Today,Pharmaceutical Science & Technology Today,Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, and Trends in Plant Science. These journals are freely accessible until May 1, 1999. Afterwards, access is available only to subscribers of each particular Trends journal. Full-text articles from January 1998 can be viewed in both HTML and .pdf formats. [SN]
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Six Medical Journals from HighWire Press
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry (JNNP)
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (ARD)
Archives of Disease in Childhood (ADC)
British Journal of Ophthalmology (BJO)
American Journal of Pathology
American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP)
The British Medical Journal (BMJ) Publishing Group has announced the online availability of four journals. The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry (JNNP) contains full-text content beginning January 1997 with abstracts online from January 1975. Also from BMJ is the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, with full-text content from January 1997 and abstracts from February 1975. Archives of Disease in Childhood contains full-text content from January 1998 and abstracts from 1975. British Journal of Ophthalmology (BJO) contains full-text content from January 1997 and abstracts from January 1975. The free trial period for all four BMJ journals (JNNP, ARD, ADC, and BJO) ends July 1, 1999. Also newly available is the American Society for Investigative Pathology's American Journal of Pathology, with abstracts beginning April 1964 and full-text content beginning July 1998; the free trial period ends June 30, 1999. The American Psychiatric Association provides the American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP), with full-text content from January 1998, abstracts from January 1975, and tables of contents from October 1965. The free trial period for AJP ends "spring 1999." All journals are provided in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press. [LXP]
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Learning Resources

The Organometallic HyperTextBook
Chemglass sponsors the Organometallic HyperTextBook Website. This site provides information on a plethora of topics such as Acetylene Metathesis, Alkyne Metathesis, Hydride Complexes, and Substitution Reactions, among others. Sections include general information, general mechanism and catalysts required for molecular reaction, and images of the discussed topic. The site provides a good synopsis of electron counting and the eighteen electron rule and coordination numbers. Links to related resources round out the site. This site is an excellent learning resource and can be useful for undergraduate students. [SN]
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Introduction to the Aves: The Birds
The Museum of Paleontology at the University of California Berkeley (reviewed in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has continued to build their impressive online resource network and now offers this site on paleontology of birds. To learn more about each subject, users may click on any of the four main sections: Fossil Record, Life History & Ecology, Systematics, or Morphology. Although some bird links are under construction, the current information is instructive and contains hyperlinks to a wealth of additional information. [LXP]
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Making Matter: The Atomic Structure of Materials [.gz, .zip, .hqx, VRML]
The Institut Laue Langevin provides the Making Matter: The Atomic Structure of Materials Website. This site offers information as well as 3D structures of inorganic materials (such as salt) in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. Sections included at the site are Close Packing, Compounds, Bonding, and Gems & Minerals, among others. This site provides spectacular 3D images (.gif and VRML format) of inorganic materials and is well worth the visit. [SN]
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Microbiology: Significant Events of the Last 125 Years -- ASM
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has put together this timeline on significant events in microbiology during the last 125 years. From Ferdinand Cohen's 1872 discussion of "the role of microorganisms in the cycling of elements in nature," through the 1995 report on the complete genome of the hantavirus Sin Nombra NMH10, students of microbiology will learn their history (or an idea of what makes history in microbiology) here. In addition to the brief summaries associated with names of important people, there are links to relevant articles in ASM publications. [LXP]
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Calculus Modules OnLine
Nova Scotia Agricultural College provides this PWS OnLine Series entitled Calculus Modules OnLine. The series is described as "a repository of learn, stretch projects, and case studies offered as resource for students, instructors, experts, amateurs, and aficionados of calculus." Topics discussed at this site are Before Calculus, Functions, Derivatives, Discrete Mathematics, and Differential Equations. The case study modules use these "different subject areas to demonstrate concepts across the curriculum." For example, Newton's Model of Cooling uses data fitting, slope fields, numerical methods, and first order linear differential equations (DE)'s to understand weather and temperature relationships. Links to several indices and glossaries round out the site. Although some parts of the site appear to be under construction, it could be a great companion to high school and/or undergraduate calculus classes. [SN]
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General Interest

Two on Earth Day
Earth Day 1999 -- EPA
Earth Day '99 -- The Wilderness Society
Both the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Wilderness Society (TWS) have created Websites for this year's Earth Day, on April 22. The EPA site is user-friendly with hyperlinks to relevant publications, a FAQ section, contacts and links, and national and regional events. The Wilderness Society's site has more historical and biological information, with sections for teachers and kids, in addition to sections on bird migration, American wilderness, and a section titled From Alaska to our Backyards. Together, the two sites provide plenty of information and suggestions for how to get involved. [LXP]
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The Pi Pages
The Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics (CECM) at Simon Fraser University's Department of Mathematics and Statistics provides the Pi Pages Website. Since 2000 BC, people have been trying to compute Pi, and Pi is "still of serious interest to modern mathematical research." Tracing the history of Pi takes the user through geometry, analysis and special functions, numerical analysis, algebra, and number theory. Sections included at the site are Pi Story, Pi Records, Pi People, Pi Literature, Pi News, Pi Aesthetics, Pi on the net, Pi Files, Pi and other numbers, and More Links to other Pi-Enriched sites. This is an excellent resource for anyone interested in learning more about Pi. [SN]
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Properties of Water
Environment Canada (mentioned in the January 21, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) provides the Properties of Water Webpage. Sections included at the page are the hydrologic cycle; rivers; lakes; snowfall; and measuring, storing, and controlling water, among others. The Quick Facts section contains interesting facts, like the following: raindrops resemble the shape of a hamburger bun, 70% of the human body is water, 75% of earth is covered in water, and most of our food is water (tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, and beef 61%). This site provides detailed information about water and its properties. [SN]
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Extreme Science
Brought to the Web by, this is a "gee whiz" site for all enthusiasts of scientific drama (be it Mother Earth or the Creature World). From the highest elevation to the deepest cave, from the deadliest creature to the oldest living thing, this site provides color images and interesting facts (some useful scientific ones too) on a slew of natural extremes. Additional recommended sites are provided in a hyperlinked list at the end of each section, for those eager to learn more. [LXP]
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Guided Tour on Wind Energy
The Danish Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association provides the Guided Tour on Wind Energy site. This tour caters to both the expert and the novice of wind energy. Sections included at the site are Wind Energy Resources, Computing Wind Turbine Energy Output, How does a Wind Turbine Work?, Designing a Wind Turbine, Research and Development in Wind Energy, Wind Energy in the Electrical Grid, and Wind Energy and the Environment, among others. Each section offers detailed information as well as images and diagrams. This is a great resource for anyone interested in learning more about wind energy. [SN]
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Current Awareness
(For links to additional current awareness on tables of contents, abstracts, preprints, new books, data, conferences, etc., visit the Current Awareness Metapage: /metapage/).

Computers that run without electricity
Digital Logic Gate Using Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
University of Notre Dame - Electrical Engineering
Scientists at the University of Notre Dame's Department of Electrical Engineering have developed "computer circuits that can be built to work without electricity -- a tiny initial charge is all that is needed." However, a major obstacle that needs to be overcome before the circuits can be useful is that they seem to work at temperatures just above absolute zero. The first site is a news release from BBC News. This breakthrough has also been published in the April 9, 1999 issue of Science, which can be viewed for a limited time at the second Website. The third site is from the University of Notre Dame's Department of Electrical Engineering. [SN]
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Forestry Source: Society of American Foresters
The Society of American Foresters publishes this slick resource on current issues and highlights in forestry. The site emphasizes forestry-related legislation, and here users will find hyperlinked summaries of current news highlights, in addition to links to forestry publications, educational information, a calendar of events, the job market, and forestry related sites, among other topics. [LXP]
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New Publications

Preliminary Investigation of the Extent and Effects of Sediment Contamination in White Lake, MI [.pdf]
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released this report (in .pdf or HTML formats) on sediment contamination in White Lake, Michigan. The investigation aimed "to define the ecological effects of the heavy metal contamination in Tannery Bay and to assess heavy metal contamination in eastern White Lake." Numerous tables and detailed figures accompany the text. [LXP]

Report of the Workshop on Selecting Input Distributions For Probabilistic Assessments [.pdf]
The Environmental Protection Agency provides online access to the Report of the Workshop on Selecting Input Distributions for Probabilistic Assessments. This report highlights the main points discussed at an EPA workshop held in April 1998 by the Eastern Research Group. The goal of the workshop and report was to "assist EPA in developing a framework and guidance for selecting input distributions for probabilistic risk assessments." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in .pdf format. [SN]

Insects of North America [.zip]
A work in development, this new resource from the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) provides access to "site-specific lists of insects that occur at various parks, refuges, and management units within North America." At present, site content is limited to Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies) and offers information on species found in National Parks and Monuments in Colorado, Montana, and Utah. Professional and amateur lepidopterists interested in contributing (documented) observations may do so at the site. [LXP]

CSC Report on Scientific Computing 1997-1998 [.pdf]
The Center for Scientific Computing (CSC) provides the CSC Report on Scientific Computing 1997-1998. This report "focuses on the achievements of computational science in Finland." Examples from physics, chemistry, bioscience, economics, and astronomy are included in the report, which can be downloaded in .pdf format. [SN]

Integrated Pest Management: The Good, The Bad and The Genetically Modified
The Australian Academy of Science's NOVA Online (discussed in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has added a report on integrated pest management. After 25 years, Western Australia's Ord River valley is making a comeback in cotton cultivation. This area was once abandoned because of "an uncontrollable infestation" of two native caterpillars. The article discusses integrated pest management and how it can be used to control persistent pests. [LXP]

Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water
The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format. [SN]

New additions to "Essays on Science and Society"
Amateur Science: Strong Tradition, Bright Future
Ritual Abuse, Hot Air, and Missed Opportunities
Anyone who has not had the good fortune to discover the Science magazine series entitled "Essays on Science and Society" (discussed in the February 28, 1998 Scout Report) will be pleased to read through this collection of essays by famous, current thinkers. Recent additions to the essay series include Forrest Mims' essay "Amateur Science: Strong Tradition, Bright Future" and Michael Crichton's essay "Ritual Abuse, Hot Air, and Missed Opportunities," among many others. [LXP]
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Job Openings in Science and Technology from the Chronicle of Higher Education
Although the Chronicle of Higher Education charges a fee to access the current week's job listings, extensive postings for the previous week are freely available. [LXP]

The Probability Web: Job Advertisement List
The Department of Mathematics at the University of Queensland provides the Probability Web: Job Advertisement List. A listing of academic positions in the mathematics and statistics fields is available at the site. [SN]

SD Job Bank: Jobs in Sustainable Development
The SD JobBank is a service of SD Gateway, an international effort to balance "the available knowledge base about sustainable development by incorporating input from regions throughout the world." Dozens of jobs are posted here, from research ecologists through executive directors. Job announcements, which cover international as well as national positions, are briefly described, with contact information and deadlines included. [LXP]

Jobs and Opportunities in Environmental Engineering
The Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors provides the Jobs and Opportunities page. A listing of Faculty, Post-Graduate, Graduate, and Undergraduate Opportunities is available. [SN]

Characteristics of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates 1997: Early Release Tables -- NSF [.xls]
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has made available the early release of tables (Excel format) to accompany a forthcoming report on Recent Science and Engineering Graduates (FOR 1997). The twelve tables provide a summary of "labor force characteristics by level of degree, field of degree, academic year of degree, and median salary; the forthcoming report will provide more detailed information including occupational field." [LXP]
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Interagency Announcement in Metabolic Engineering
The National Science Foundation (NSF), in conjunction with several other agencies, has announced a funding opportunity in Metabolic Engineering. This interagency initiative will fund proposals that describe technologies (instrumentation, sensors, quantitative and conceptual models integrated with experimental studies, and bioinformatics) "useful for the study of metabolic processes and metabolic engineering." The pre-proposal submission deadline is May 17, 1999. [SN]

Computing Technology for Ecosystem Modeling -- EPA
Under their "Science to Achieve Results (STAR)" 1999 competitive program, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced funding of Computing Technology for Ecosystem Modeling. Main areas of interest are "problem solving environments with object-oriented and/or component-based software design for cross-media ecosystem simulation; data management and manipulation associated with preparation of data for use in multi-scale ecosystem simulation and analysis/ synthesis of simulation results for problem resolution; techniques for representation of earth surface and subsurface characteristics; and scalable parallel algorithm development for subsurface geohydrologic modeling." The deadline is May 12, 1999. [LXP]

The United States Rice Genome Sequencing Project [.pdf]
The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) of the Department of Agriculture (USDA), in collaboration with the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation, has announced "a new interagency competitive grants program . . . to sequence the rice genome." Proposal guidelines are available in .pdf or HTML formats; proposals are due May 4, 1999. [LXP]

Large Scientific and Software Data Set Visualization [.pdf, MS Word]
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced funding for the Large Scientific and Software Data Set Visualization program. The program will support research "to improve our ability to understand large data sets, simulation results, and software systems. It encourages use of these improved methods on data sets from experiments and simulations of real scientific interest and on large software systems." The full proposal deadline is July 6, 1999, and instructions may be downloaded as a .pdf or MS Word document or read on-site. [LXP]
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27th International Conference on Coastal Engineering
The 27th International Conference on Coastal Engineering is sponsored by the Institution of Engineers, Australia and the Coastal Engineering Research Council of the American Society of Civil Engineers and will be held July 16-21, 2000, in Sydney, Australia. Topics to be discussed at the conference are Coastal Oceanography and Meteorology; Coastal Sediment Processes; Shore Protection; Coastal Structures; Coastal Environment; and Dredging, Navigation Channels, Harbors, and Ports. A technical exhibition of products, services, and research activities as well as technical tours of interest to coastal engineers will also be included at the conference. The paper submission deadline is June 1, 1999. [SN]

Second International Conference on Geospatial Information in Agriculture and Forestry
The Second International Conference on Geospatial Information in Agriculture and Forestry will be held in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, January 10-12, 2000. The conference will focus on geospatial information technologies and applications. Interested contributors should submit a 250-word abstract by April 26, 1999. Electronic submissions are available at the conference homepage. [LXP]

Lattice '99
The Seventeenth International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory, Lattice '99, will be held June 29-July 3, 1999, in Pisa, Italy. Topics to be discussed at the conference are Heavy Quark Physics, Chiral Gauge Theories, Spin Models, and Algorithms, among others. The conference registration and abstract submission deadline is April 29, 1999. Interested parties can register for the conference after the deadline, but a late fee will be applied. Conference organizers would like abstracts to be submitted electronically using their abstract submission form, but email and regular mail submissions will also be accepted. [SN]

Neuroethology: Behavior, Evolution & Neurobiology
The Gordon Research Conference on Neuroethology: Behavior, Evolution & Neurobiology will be held at Queen's College, Oxford (UK) from August 29 to September 3, 1999. A list of featured speakers with descriptions of their topics is provided at the conference homepage. Registration and payment may be arranged online; those who register at least three weeks prior to the conference receive a discount. [LXP]
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New Data

Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I Passive Microwave Data
QuickTime Animations of Monthly Mean Sea Ice Concentrations from Sea Ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I Passive Microwave Data Set
MPEG Images of Arctic
MPEG Images of Antarctic
The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) (described in the October 2, 1998 Scout Report) provides the Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I Passive Microwave Data set. The dataset ranges from October 1978 to December 1996 and includes "daily and monthly averaged sea ice concentrations in binary and .gif format derived from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I F8, F11, and F13 daily brightness temperatures at a grid cell size of 25 X 25 km." Summaries of these sea ice concentrations datasets are also available via FTP. In addition, QuickTime movies of Arctic and Antarctic monthly mean sea ice concentrations as well as MPEG images of the changes in sea ice concentrations from 1978 to 1996 are also available. Links to related datasets are also available at NSIDC's site. [SN]
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Real-Time Streamflow Data via Satellite
The US Geological Survey's Water Resources division in Anchorage, Alaska provides these real-time data from stream flow gages at observation stations in Alaska's (USA) Arctic Slope, Northwest, Southwest, South Central, Southeast, and Yukon Basin regions. Note that the data may be subject to significant change and "are not citeable until reviewed and approved by the USGS." Data include Long-term median flow, Flow, Stage, Water Temperature, and Date/ Time. [LXP]
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Coastal Relief Model
The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (described in the January 17, 1997 Scout Report) provides online images of US Northeast and Southeast Atlantic Coastal Relief Models. The Coastal Relief Gridded database "provides the first comprehensive view of the US Coastal Zone; one that extends from the coastal state boundaries to as far offshore as the NOS hydrographic data will support a continuous view of the seafloor." In the future, the gridded database will contain the coastal zones of the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. [SN]
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Santa Rita Watersheds [.zip, .tar.z]
The Southwest Water Resource Center/ USDA provides data on precipitation and runoff, and meteorological data for the Santa Rita Experimental Watersheds in Arizona. Data are available in .zip, .tar.z, or .txt formats, with accompanying instructions for downloading. [LXP]
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In The News

Calcium Depletion in Forest Soils of the Eastern US
1. Trees need calcium, too
2. Trees Need Calcium, Too... Soil Calcium Depletion Linked to Acid Rain and Forest Growth in the Eastern United States Resources
3. Soil-Calcium Depletion Linked to Acid Rain and Forest Growth in the Eastern United States [.pdf]
4. EPA: Acid Rain Program
5. Acid Rain
6. ACE On-Line Fact Sheet Series: Air Quality & Acid Rain
7. Institute of Ecosystem Studies
8. Gene Likens
9. Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study
This week's In the News focuses on calcium depletion in the forest soils of ten states in the Eastern US. Calcium depletion decreases the ability of trees to "ward off stresses such as temperature changes and insect defoliation" (1). Scientists have noted that sugar maples and red spruce trees in ten different sites now have reduced resistance to "defoliation by insects and low winter temperatures" (1). In a recent report, scientists Gregory Lawrence and Thomas Huntington of the US Geological Survey (USGS) claim that a cause of calcium depletion is acid rain. Lawrence and Huntington describe a mechanism whereby acid rain decreases calcium soil content: ". . . sulfuric and nitric acids from acid deposition . . . tend to remain in solution within the mineral soil where they lower the pH, thereby releasing aluminum to soil water and causing the leaching of calcium" (1). In addition, timber harvesting may also contribute to the depletion of calcium in forest soils because, as trees are removed from the site, the calcium within them is removed as well. Due to the combined effects of acid rain and timber harvest, some areas have low calcium soil content and consequently low forest growth. The nine resources listed above provide background information on acid rain and articles and research efforts on the relationship between calcium soil content and acid rain.

The first two news releases, from the Environmental News Network (1) and the US Geological Survey (2), describe the linkage between acid rain and low calcium content in forest soils of Eastern United States. USGS provides the third resource, which describes findings by scientists Gregory Lawrence and Thomas Huntington regarding acid rain and its role in forest ecosystems (3). The fourth resource, from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), describes current measures being taken to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and chlorine gas, which are the primary causes of acid rain (4). The fifth resource, from WREXAM University of Wales Associate College, describes the formation of acid rain as well as the effects and future of acid rain (5). The sixth resource, from the Atmospheric Research and Information Centre at Manchester Metropolitan University, provides information on the science, impact, and management of air pollution and acid rain (6). The Institute of Ecosystem Studies (7) supplies information on director Gene Likens' research studies on the effects of acid rain on ecosystems (8). The ninth resource, from Syracuse University, is the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES) Website (9). HBES conducts ecosystem studies and acid rain studies, as well as hydrologic and atmospheric research. In addition, this site also informs visitors about the Long-Term Ecological Research Project at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, established to "develop a better understanding of the response of northern hardwood ecosystems to large-scale disturbances (9)." [SN]
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