The Scout Report for Science & Engineering - May 12, 1999

The Scout Report for Science & Engineering

May 12, 1999

A Publication of the Internet Scout Project
Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison

The target audience of the new Scout Report for Science & Engineering is faculty, students, staff, and librarians in the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Each biweekly issue offers a selective collection of Internet resources covering topics in the sciences, and related fields such as math and engineering, that have been chosen by librarians and content specialists in the given field of study.

The Scout Report for Science & Engineering is also provided via email once every two weeks. Subscription information is included at the bottom of each issue.

In This Issue


Learning Resources

General Interest

Current Awareness

New Data

In The News


Chemical Physics Preprint Database [.ps]
Brown University and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provide the Chemical Physics Preprint Database. This database is intended to "provide a means for rapid and efficient preprint distribution within the international chemical physics community." Designed to be useful for education and research purposes, it allows users to retrieve and submit research papers electronically via the Internet, which is possible through email, anonymous FTP, and WWW servers. The abstracts can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text articles are available in .ps format. The database is searchable by subject, abstract, year, title, and author. Research papers submitted since 1994 are available. [SN]
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The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS)
BOREAS, the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study, is a large-scale international experiment in the boreal forests of Canada designed to understand how boreal forests "interact with the atmosphere, how much CO2 they can store, and how climate change will affect them." Although much of the project is now complete, a "Follow-On Project" will conduct further analyses of the BOREAS data, with results expected in 2000. BOREAS data currently available include detailed coverage of: Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM), Hydrology (HYD), Remote Sensing Science (RSS), Terrestrial Ecology (TE), Tower Fluxes (TF), Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (TGB), and Staff Science, with most data from 1994-96. [LXP]
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The Isotopes Project Home Page [.pdf, .ps]
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory provides the Isotopes Project Home Page. The goal of this project is to "compile, evaluate, and disseminate nuclear structure and radioactive decay data for basic and applied research." The project evaluates nuclear structure data for 43 mass chains (A=167-194), "nuclei far-from-stability with the Atomic Mass Data Center (Orsay), neutron capture gamma-ray data with the Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry (Budapest), and spontaneous fission data with the GANDS collaboration (LBNL, LLNL, INEL, Vanderbilt, UCB)." Site sections include Exploring the Isotopes; Glossary of Nuclear Science Terms; WWW Table of the Isotope, a database; Isotope Explorer, a tool that accesses and displays nuclear data, and searches for literature references; Nuclear Science Reference Search, searchable by keyword, data type, and topic; Table of Superdeformed Nuclear Bands and Fission Isomers (HTML, .pdf, .ps); Nuclear Astrophysics, a database; Thermal Neutron Capture; Fission, a section that provides Gamma-Ray and Nuclear Structure Data; Atomic Masses (.ps, .pdf); Table of Radioactive Isotopes (mentioned in the April 29, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering Report); and Gamquest, a computer program to identify gamma rays. [SN]
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Dendrome: Forest Tree Genome Database
Institute of Forest Genetics
Based in California, Dendrome is a project of the Institute of Forest Genetics (USDA Forest Service) that aims to act as "a central electronic resource for the study of forest tree genomes." Users will find a wealth of information at the site, including several excellent genome resources (complete with genetic maps), links to research institutes, upcoming scientific meetings and courses, and job opportunities. Of particular use to researchers are the genetic databases with linkage maps for numerous species of the genus Cryptomeria,Eucalyptus,Picea,Pinus and Populus. A selection of specific resources rounds out the site. [LXP]
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Worthington Glacier Project
Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Worthington Glacier Project is a collaboration between researchers at the University of Wyoming and the University of Colorado. The objective of this project is to understand glacier flow dynamics "by comparing detailed measurements of glacier motion with numerical models for glacier flow." Summaries and diagrams are provided of the discussed topics: Borehole Video Observations, Radio-Echo Sounding, Crevassing, Surface Flow Field, Englacial Flow Field, 3-D Flow Field, and In-Situ Stress. Images of the Worthington Glacier fieldwork, future research, and publications are also available at the site. [SN]
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American Mathematical Monthly
JSTOR: Participating Institutions
JSTOR has made available online the Mathematical Association of America's publication American Mathematical Monthly, containing "articles, as well as notes and other features, about mathematics and the profession." The publication targets "professional mathematicians as well as students of mathematics at all collegiate levels." Online issues include Vols. 1-100, spanning the years 1894-1993 (issues will be added as they become more than five years old). The journal may be searched by keyword in several fields -- full-text, title, author, and abstract -- or browsed by date of publication. A list of JSTOR participants is provided at the JSTOR site. [LXP]
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Learning Resources

Finite Mathematics & Applied Calculus Resource Page
Stefan Waner and Steven Costenoble of Hofstra University's Department of Mathematics (mentioned in the February 14, 1997 Scout Report) provide the Finite Mathematics & Applied Calculus Resource Website. This excellent resource offers a plethora of opportunities for the user to enhance his or her mathematical skills. Sections included at the site are Simplex Method Tool, Matrix Algebra Tool, Markov System in Action, and On-Line Numerical Integration, among others. Each section discusses the subject as it relates to Finite Mathematics Applied to the Real World, Calculus Applied to the Real World, and Finite Mathematics & Calculus Applied to the Real World. A highlight of the site is the On-line Interactive Tutorials section. Each tutorial (Algebra, Finite Mathematics, and Calculus) section provides a brief summary of the discussed topic along with a review exercise and true/false quizzes. This site is well worth a visit. [SN]
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Everglades Field Trip
Duke University Wetland Center
The prestigious Duke University Wetland Center, headed up by Dr. Curtis Richardson, brings this gem of a resource to the Web. The Everglades Field Trip is a wonderful learning site, loaded with information and accompanied by color photographs, figures, and illustrative graphics. Although the resource lacks a Table of Contents, information is presented in a logical order with several points at which to select more or less detail. The trip begins with an explanation of the Everglades' natural processes: hydrology (of the Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee, Central Everglades, Taylor Slough, Florida Bay, and Shark River Slough), biology (Distribution of plant communities, Animals, and Endangered Species), and geology (the Eastern Coastal Ridge). From there, users learn about Anthropogenic effects on the system, with emphasis on: the Central & Florida Project; creation of parks, refuges and preserves; and current problems facing the region. For anyone with an interest in learning more about the Everglades -- or processes of wetland ecosystems -- this is an excellent site. [LXP]
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The Natural Science Pages [frames]
Anthony Carpi, assistant professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, provides the Natural Science Pages. The site is divided into two primary sections, NSC 107 course-specific material (online supplement to students enrolled in this course at John Jay College) and course lessons (general use). The topics covered in the Course Lessons are Scientific Method, Matter & Energy, Atomic Structure, Periodic Table, Atomic Bonding, Reactions, Acids & Bases, Nuclear Science, The Universe, Organic Chem, Nutrients, DNA, The Cell, and Basic Anatomy. Descriptions, images, diagrams, and links to related resources are provided for each topic. This is an excellent learning resource and is well worth a visit. [SN]
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Operation Crane Watch [MPEG]
Although the title suggests a military orientation, Operation Crane Watch is actually a US Geological Survey site that tracks the migratory movements of twenty Sandhill Cranes en route to their respective breeding grounds. Captured in the Platte River Valley in March and April, each bird is tracked by a satellite transmitter affixed to a band placed above the crane's knee joint. The Website provides a brief overview (and photographs) of the capture methods, as well as several sound clips (MPEG) of cranes calling. The main value of the site, however, is the series of maps showing each bird's movements, and a combined map indicating the most recent locations of all marked birds with latitude and longitude record and date of each individual sighting. The combined map is an excellent illustration of the wide breeding range of Sandhill Cranes. Students and educators will find this site particularly useful. [LXP]
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Paleoclimatology and Climate System Dynamics
The American Geophysical Union maintains this no-frills Paleoclimatology and Climate System Dynamics site. The use of paleoclimatology is discussed, with the intent of understanding its role in the present and future climate system dynamics. Sections include The Role of the Paleo-Sciences in Understanding Climate System Dynamics; Natural Variability: Patterns and Processes; Climatic Surprises; Testing and Improving Predictive Models; Detecting and Explaining Environmental Change, among others. This is a good resource for users interested in understanding paleoclimatology as it relates to climate system dynamics. [SN]
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The Tide Pool Page [frames]
Now a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) undergraduate, Corrina Chase put together this exceptional site while still in highschool with fellow student Jamie Fitzpatrick. The site offers useful information on tidepools; it is illustrated with color photographs and absolutely beautiful watercolors by Corinna Chase. Separated into High Spray Zone, High Tide Zone, Mid Tide Zone, Low Tide Zone, and Sub Tide Zone, each section features a dozen or more intertidal species, with name (common and scientific), range, diet, habit, and other basic information provided for each. At the site, users may also learn tidepool tips and more about tides; of special note, there are links to tide charts for coastal areas across the continent. [LXP]
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General Interest

Soil Liquefication Website [QuickTime, MPEG]
The Soil Liquefication Website, from the University of Washington, is designed for both the novice and the expert of soil liquefaction which is "a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid loading." Visitors can find answers to the What, When, Where, Why, and How of soil liquefication. Links to soil liquefication research as well as earthquake information are available at the site. The Soil Liquefication Website is an excellent resource for anyone interested in learning more about earthquakes since "liquefication and related phenomena have been responsible for tremendous amounts of damage in historical earthquakes around the world." [SN]
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Audubon has launched this site identifying North American bird species that are "faced with population decline, limited geographic range, and/or threats such as habitat loss on their breeding and wintering grounds." Compiled by Partners in Flight, the list is provided as a citizen science initiative to shift conservation agendas away from "reactive, last-minute rescue attempts" and towards preventative measures. In addition to the continental WatchList, the site posts state WatchLists. To access a state list, simply click on the US map (or state name) to browse the list of bird species or read about the criteria used to establish the list. Each highlighted species account includes a color photograph, common and scientific name, and indicators of relative abundance, distribution, threats to breeding and non-breeding ranges, and population trends. The site also includes a FAQ section, Five Ways to Help WatchList Birds, and Kids WatchList Action. [LXP]
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Auroras: Paintings in the Sky [RealAudio, QuickTime]
Mish Denlinger of San Francisco's Exploratorium created Auroras: Paintings in the Sky, a Web exhibit devoted to this beautiful celestial phenomenon. Visitors are introduced to how auroras are created, what they look from Earth and space, and where they can be found. Spectacular images of auroras accompany the text. A Self-Guided Tour allows browsing at the user's pace and a Teacher's Page features specific curriculum suggestions for K-12 teachers. Links to other aurora Websites and related resources round out the site. [SN]
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Coral Reef Protection: A Watershed Approach
This colorful, straightforward site from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Oceans and Coastal Protection division (described in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) outlines coral reef basic ecology and protection. About Coral Reefs provides background ecological information on coral reefs; Initiatives and Activities highlights EPA's activities but includes other US initiatives and links to symposia preceedings, factsheets, and other resources; and Related Links provides additional information on coral reef protection from the international, non-governmental (as well as federal), and educational sectors. A selection of recent news items (on the front page) rounds out the site. [LXP]
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A Walk Through Time
The Physics Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides A Walk Through Time, a site devoted to examining the question of how humans have measured time throughout history. In one example, Egyptians created the first timepiece (shadow clock or sundial) in the approximate year of 1500 BC to measure "hours." Nowadays, the Physics Laboratory develops and operates the "standards of time and frequency and coordinates them with other world standards." Those interested in timekeeping methods and an historical perspective on the evolution of time measurement will find this site fascinating. [SN]
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Current Awareness

(For links to additional current awareness on tables of contents, abstracts, preprints, new books, data, conferences, etc., visit the The Scout Report for Science & Engineering Current Awareness Metapage:

Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Stanford School of Earth Sciences
Science has published an article, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, discussing a recent experiment conducted by scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and Stanford University. The goal of this radical and ambitious experiment was to directly dispose carbon dioxide (produced due to burning fossil fuels) in the cold and high-pressure environment of the deep sea to prevent it from adding to the greenhouse effect. However, due to unexpected results, this idea seems to be more difficult to implement than imagined. In addition, the effects of deploying liquid carbon dioxide on deep-sea organisms still need to be investigated. The first site is to the above-mentioned article that appears in the May 7, 1999 issue of Science; it will be accessible online for a limited time period. The second and third sites provide information on the scientists involved in the experiment, Peter Brewer, Gernot Friederich, and Edward Peltzer at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and Franklin Orr at the Stanford School of Earth Science, respectively. [SN]
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New Publications

Mercury: In Your community and Your Environment--EPA [.pdf]
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides online access to the article Mercury: In Your Community and the Environment and is available in .pdf format. This report provides information about mercury for teachers that includes activities for students. [SN]

Science in Latin America [.pdf]
Nature special feature (April supplement) "Science in Latin America" is freely available in HTML or .pdf (157 K) at the Website. The supplement "attempts to collate and analyze the common challenges and opportunities facing science policy makers across the region." The report emphasizes "Brazil, Argentina and Mexico as the three dominant scientific powers in the region, Chile as an innovator, and Cuba as an exception, the island nation that is still engaged in a Cold War." [LXP]

Large Scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire [.pdf]
The Woods Hole Research Center has made available the full text (.pdf format, 395KB) of a recent article entitled "Large Scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire." Written by Daniel Nepstad of the Woods Hole Research Center and Brazilian and American collaborators, the article was featured in the British journal Nature, in the highlighted issue "Cryptic Deforestation." [LXP]

CRS Reports
Thirty-two new, and sixteen updated Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports have been added to the National Library for the Environment site. Reports cover Roadless Areas, China and the World Trade Organization, Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs, Western Water Resource Issues, Economic Sanctions and US Agricultural Exports, Conservation Reserve Program, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Johnson's Seagrass, and Africa: Trade and Development Initiatives, among others. [LXP]

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 1998 [.pdf]
The National Science Foundation has placed on line this report on the status of women and minorities in science and engineering. The report (.pdf format) documents "both short- and long-term trends in the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment." [LXP]

Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Quick-look Report of the Hawaii ATOC-MMRP Hawaiian 1997/98 Results
The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate site provides online access to the article Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Quick-look Report of the Hawaii ATOC-MMRP Hawaiian 1997/98 Results. This controversial experiment has raised scientists' concerns regarding the impact of loud, low frequency sounds on marine mammals. The report states that, based on field observations and analysis to date, "there were no acute or short-term effects of the ATOC transmissions on marine mammals, based on the definitions listed in the Environmental Impact Statement Table C-1 (ARPA 1995)." [SN]

Two from CICERO
"Sources of conflicts in climate policy within the EU: An economic analysis" [.pdf]
"A simple model for scenario studies of changes in global climate: Version 1.0" [.pdf]
The Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO) has placed on line two documents entitled "Sources of conflicts in climate policy within the EU: An economic analysis," and "A simple model for scenario studies of changes in global climate: Version 1.0." Both are available for download (.pdf format). [LXP]

Nomenclature for Vitamins B-6 and Related Compounds
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) provides online access to the report titled Nomenclature for Vitamins B-6 and Related Compounds. Various nomenclature rules are provided for vitamin B-6, related compounds, derivatives and analogues. [SN]
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Job Openings in Science and Technology from the Chronicle of Higher Education
Although the Chronicle of Higher Education charges a fee to access the current week's job listings, extensive postings for the previous week are freely available. [LXP]

Pro/E Job Network
The Pro/E Job Network provides job listings by region, Canada, and International subject headings. Although posting a job opening requires a fee, users can freely browse through the job listings section. Most listings are for engineering positions in industry. [SN]

NAML Job site
National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML)
This National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) job site posts opportunities for scientists, engineers and professionals working in marine systems and the Great Lakes, "from Guam to Bermuda and Alaska to Puerto Rico." Currently several dozen jobs are posted, most of which fall within the academic sector. [LXP]
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Two funding opportunities from the National Science Foundation
NSF/EPA Partnership for Environmental Research: Interagency Announcement of Opportunity for Grants in Technology for a Sustainable Environment
Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program Guidelines for Submission of Proposals
Two new funding opportunities are available for US scientists from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The first research opportunity is the NSF/EPA Partnership for Environmental Research: Interagency Announcement of Opportunity for Grants in Technology for a Sustainable Environment. This initiative encourages "fundamental and applied research in the physical sciences and engineering that will lead to the discovery, development, and evaluation of advanced and novel environmentally benign methods for industrial processing and manufacturing." The full proposal deadline is June 26, 1999. Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program Guidelines for Submission of Proposals is an initiative that will support junior faculty in the early phases of their career to stimulate "the discovery process in which the excitement of research is enhanced by inspired teaching and enthusiastic learning." The proposal submission deadline is July 22, 1999. [SN]

USGS: Postdoctoral Research Associates
The Geologic Division of the US Geological Survey has announced sixteen Research Associate opportunities for 1-2 years in the fields of: Sediment Transport Modeling, Coastal and Near-shore Erosion, Marine Environmental Geochemistry, Integrated Information Management, Carbon Sequestration: Geological and Geochemical Controls on Carbon Dioxide Storage, Basin History: Timing of Paleo-fluid Flow in Foredeep Basins, Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy, Geology Impacts on Human Health, and Organic Geochemistry/Biogeochemistry, among others. Full descriptions of proposal requirements are provided online; proposals are due 16 July 1999. [LXP]

United Engineering Foundation
The United Engineering Foundation is a non-profit organization that supports the advancement of "engineering arts and sciences." This foundation provides grants for the advancement of engineering in the following areas: Secondary School Programs to Generate Interest in Engineering, Mid-Career Assistance for Engineers, Opportunities for Retired Engineers to Volunteer Their Skills, and Increased Public Understanding of the Role Played by Engineers and Engineering. The grants provided for exploratory research are usually for "innovative projects with potential to benefit mankind." It is not clear whether these opportunities are only for US scientists. [SN]
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The Fifteenth North American Diatom Symposium (NADS)
The Fifteenth North American Diatom Symposium (NADS) will be held from 22-25 September 1999 at Colorado State University (Pingree Park Campus). Poster and abstract submission forms are available online, and are requested "as soon as possible and no later than 2 August." The conference program covers "any topic pertinent to diatoms, living and fossil, marine and freshwater." [LXP]

Millenium Wetland Event
The International Association of Ecology (INTECOL), the Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS), the International Peat Society (IPS), and the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG) have announced the Millenium Wetland Event to be held August 6-12, 2000 in Quebec. The deadline for invited paper symposia, contributed papers, round table discussions, and training courses is 31 August, 1999. Instructions and details are provided at the site. [LXP]
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New Data

Access to On-Board Data
IMAGES I (North Atlantic Ocean and Norwegian sea, 1995) [.txt]
IMAGES II (Namibia Angola upwelling system and Indian/Atlantic connection, 1996) [.xls]
IMAGES III (south of Australia and south-north transect from New Zealand to China Sea, 1997) [.hqx]
The International Marine Global Change Study (IMAGES) provides online access to On-Board Data. Access to data of three regions, IMAGES I (North Atlantic Ocean and Norwegian sea, 1995), IMAGES II (Namibia Angola upwelling system and Indian/Atlantic connection, 1996), and IMAGES III (south of Australia and south-north transect from New Zealand to China Sea, 1997). This data is downloadable via FTP. [SN]
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Bibliography of the Neuropterida
John Oswold of the Department of Entomology at Texas A&M University offers this searchable, working bibliography of the literature on "Extant and Fossil Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera (Insecta: Neuropterida) of the World." There are currently 8,975 citations with recent entries through October 1998 (Version 6.1). The site also includes instructions and tips on retrieving the information, access to earlier versions of the bibliography, and links to related sites. [LXP]
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Three datasets from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast
The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway f_CO2 Systems During the R/V _Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean
Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992 - January 1993)
Three articles are available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The first report, A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast, discusses the "contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the U.S. West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise." The second research article, The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway f_CO2 Systems During the R/V _Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean, describes the comparisons made between surface seawater fugacity of carbon dioxide (f_CO2), which was measured by instruments under identical conditions. The third report, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V _Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992 - January 1993), describes the "procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10)." Data published in these articles are presented in ASCII text and/or can be read using a FORTRAN 77 data-retrieval routine. [SN]
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PROSITE: Database of protein families and domains
PROSITE, a database of protein sites and patterns, is provided by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB) to help "reliably identify to which known protein family (if any) a new sequence belongs." Recently updated, the database contains specific signatures for more than a thousand protein families or domains. "Each of these signatures comes with documentation providing background information on the structure and function of these proteins." Although access is completely free to academic users, commercial users must pay a licensing fee. The database is searchable by description, entry name or accession number, author, citation, or full text. First-time users should consult the PROCITE user manual. [LXP]
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In The News

Successful 'Green' Solvent Found For Problematic Chemicals
1. Successful 'Green' Solvent Found For Problematic Chemicals
2. Making Solutions Less Problematic
3. Green processing using ionic liquids and CO2
4. Welcome to the University of Notre Dame, Chemical Engineering Department Web Page
5. University of Pittsburgh, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
6. Supercritical Fluids Facility
7. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids
8. Physics of Supercritical Fluids
9. Green Chemistry
10. A Report of the 2nd Annual Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference
This week's In The News highlights the discovery of a new process that could separate problematic chemicals from ionic liquids. In industry, chemical reactions are performed in toxic organic solvents and some can form carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Specifically, the vapor pressure of these organic solvents is hazardous because these "solvents evaporate easily into the air (1)." The effects of such a reaction are that factory workers may inhale them and "the solvents add to damage of the earth's atmosphere, because organic solvents eventually will oxidize and create carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas with potential impact on global warming (1)". Published in the May 6, 1999 issue of Nature (3), scientists Joan Brennecke, Eric Beckman and other team members discuss how two "benign compounds together can perform certain chemical separations now done only by noxious organics (2)." In the process discussed in Nature these scientists enforced supercritical (high pressure that causes liquid and gas to combine into one fluid phase) carbon dioxide into a solution of naphthalene (an organic chemical) dissolved in an ionic liquid (liquid salts at room temperature made of organic cations and inorganic anions). This pulled the naphthalene out with it while leaving behind the ionic liquid. As this mixture was depressurized, the "carbon dioxide returned to its gaseous form, leaving pure solid naphthalene (1)." Ionic liquids and carbon dioxide are not considered perilous because ionic liquids do not evaporate and carbon dioxide is "considered to be an environmentally benign solvent because it is nontoxic and nonflammable and isn't being created in the process; what already exists is simply being used (1)." Scientists Brennecke and Beckman believe this process could be useful for other chemicals. The ten resources listed above provide news summaries, background information, and resources related to this recent discovery.

The first two resources, from Eurekalert (1) and InSCIght (2), are news releases describing this novel process. The third resource provides online access to the Nature article, "Green processing using ionic liquids and CO2," for a limited time period (3). The fourth resource, from the University of Notre Dame, provides information on Joan Brennecke's research efforts in minimizing the environmental impact of chemical manufacturing processes (4). The fifth resource, from the University of Pittsburgh, discusses Eric Beckman's research in green chemical processing using carbon dioxide (5). The sixth resource, from Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides background information on supercritical fluids and how they can be used in different processes such as polymer synthesis and material modification (6). The seventh resource, from the University of Alabama, discusses ionic liquids at room temperature (7). The eighth resource, from the University of Nottingham (UK), describes supercritical fluids (8). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides the ninth resource, Green Chemistry (9). This program's goal is to support activities in environmentally benign chemistry so as to develop products or processes to "reduce or eliminate the use or generation of toxic substances associated with the design, manufacture, and use of chemicals" (9). The tenth resource, from Murdoch University (Australia), provides the proceedings from the second Annual Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference (10). This report highlights some of the research initiatives in basic chemistry through chemical engineering. [SN]
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