The Scout Report for Science & Engineering - January 19, 2000

January 19, 2000

A Publication of the Internet Scout Project
Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison

The target audience of the new Scout Report for Science & Engineering is faculty, students, staff, and librarians in the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Each biweekly issue offers a selective collection of Internet resources covering topics in the sciences, and related fields such as math and engineering, that have been chosen by librarians and content specialists in the given field of study.

The Scout Report for Science & Engineering is also provided via email once every two weeks. Subscription information is included at the bottom of each issue.

In This Issue


Learning Resources

General Interest

Current Awareness

New Data

In The News


Conservation Ecology: Volume 3, Issue 2
The peer-reviewed scientific journal Conservation Ecology (first discussed in the February 4, 1998 issue of the Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has released Volume 3, Issue 2 (December 1999). Provided by the Ecological Society of America, Conservation Ecology is exclusively electronic, covering "integrative science and fundamental policy research." The current issue features several articles, including "Ecological and Social Dynamics in Simple Models of Ecosystem Management" by Stephen Carpenter and others, and several articles on Adaptive Management. Also included are four McDonnell Centennial Essays, two reports on ecosystem linkages and managing the resilience of lakes, and several comments on previous articles. For any ecologist or conservation biologist who has yet to discover this gem of a publication, Happy New Year. [LXP]
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Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) [.pdf]
From the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) "carries out interdisciplinary scientific investigations in oceanography and marine meteorology." This large site contains Coastal and Arctic Research (with a fisheries oceanography page), Ocean Environment Research (with information on an in-depth tsunami research program, as well as a hydrothermal studies page), and Ocean Climate Research (with topics ranging from atmospheric chemistry to carbon dioxide, equatorial ocean modeling, and chlorofluorocarbons). Other highlights include a searchable publications page with PMEL Outstanding Scientific Papers (1990-1997 selections are available online) and a set of theme pages with links to information, analyses, and data. [KR]
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National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC)
Established by the US Congress in the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1990, the primary goal of NIGEC is "to pursue excellent research in the field of global climate change." Additionally, NIGEC aims to serve as "a virtual institute that crosses regional boundaries to integrate and synthesize information for decision makers." To these ends, the NIGEC homepage provides detailed information on the Institute's research projects (organized by year and region), including a Global Change News Highlights section (includes abstracts and citations for cutting-edge scientific articles), a Publications section (organized by year and Region), and a Cross-Cutting Initiatives section (on specific NIGEC focal areas). Contact information for regional centers and links to related sites round out this research-oriented site. [LXP]
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Institut d'Astronomie and d'Astrophysique at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles [NetGen, .ps, .pdf]
The homepage of the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Free University of Brussels offers a unique feature for researchers to generate astrophysical reaction rates online. Using the Network Generator tool and an extended database, which includes the European Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE), the program generates "tables of nuclear reaction rates on temperature grids specified by the user." The site supplies direct access to data on nuclear structure, level densities, Hauser-Feshbach Rates, and more. Along with many publications from 1996 to 1999, users can download recent papers on red giants and nuclear astrophysics (.ps). [KR]
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Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)
CSIRO, an Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, is one of the world's largest and most diverse scientific research institutions. Spanning science and technology, CSIRO research projects cover an immense area, from Atmospheric Chemistry and Agriculture through Zoology. CSIRO's metasite organizes research activities by subject area and, within each area, by a host of subcategories (Information Sheets, What We Do, Recent Achievements, Media Releases, Scientific Contacts, and more). To find subject-specific materials, follow links from the broadest category (try several) to the most narrow; a helpful feature is that links to related sites are often provided in addition to links to CSIRO-specific sites. Educators and researchers will be rewarded with useful and current information here, although finding it may require some navigational patience and creativity. [LXP]
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The D-Zero Experiment [.ps]
The D-Zero Experiment is a worldwide collaboration of physics researchers centrally located at the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory's Tevratron Collider. The experiment focuses on the fundamental nature of matter, with particular attention paid to "precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons at the highest available energies." Researchers will be especially interested in the results section within which they can access summaries of new results, D-Zero results presented at 1999 summer conferences, Run II Fermilab Supersymmetry/ Higgs Workshop documents and summaries, and documents of work conducted by various Physics Groups working in specialized areas. The site also offers a technical section featuring information on experiment upgrades and computing, as well as contact information for experiment collaborators. Note, some areas are restricted to D-Zero collaboration members. [KR]
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Learning Resources

Academy 2000: Distance Learning Modules on Key Watershed Management Topics -- EPA [.pdf]
The Watershed Academy -- EPA
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Watershed Academy offers training opportunities for ecologists, managers, and others interested in watersheds. Additionally, 20 Academy 2000 Distance Learning Modules are now available online to highlight key watershed management topics. While some modules are under construction, those currently available provide a solid backbone in many important areas such as Principles of Watershed Management, Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle, Watershed Modeling, Economics of Sustainability, and Stream Corridor Restoration. Modules vary in depth (and intended audience), but all are (co)-authored by prominent scientists in the field of watershed ecology. Designed to reach a broad audience, many modules are provided in slide format (navigable by clicking on arrows) and could be supplemented with more technical readings; others are given in .pdf format. The inclusion of color photographs throughout, such as in the Ohio's Virtual Watershed Tour module, supplements the learning experience by providing illustrations and examples of important concepts. [LXP]
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Galileo and Einstein Home Page
These lecture notes from Michael Fowler, Physics professor at University of Virginia, explore "two revolutions in our perception of the universe," the impacts of Galileo and then Einstein on our understanding of physics. The 27 lectures included here may be a useful supplement and teaching aid for educators. The lectures begin with the early Greeks and follow the progress of scientific thought through the work of Galileo, Isaac Newton, and Einstein. The lectures themselves are clear and offer interesting historic details and a conversational approach to explaining concepts. Though the lectures were written a few years ago, the content is timeless, and many of the lectures have been recently updated. [KR]
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Species' Life Cycles -- NWF
The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) provides these colorful pages summarizing different stages of several species's life cycles. Focusing on the interconnected and fragile nature of existence, this site features a half dozen species: Karner Blue Butterfly, Dwarf Wedgemussel, Chinook Salmon, Indiana Bat, Grizzly Bear, and Mauna Kea Silversword. This could serve as a fine supplement for introductory courses on basic ecology, population biology, conservation biology, or wildlife management. [LXP]
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Statistical Mechanics [.jpg, QuickTime]
From the University of California, San Diego's Wilson Squier Group, these Statistical Mechanics pages offer slide shows (.jpg) to explain "the macroscopic thermodynamic properties in terms of microscopic properties of chemical systems." Sections include an Introduction to Statistical Mechanics, Boltzmann Distribution Function, Relations of Statistical Mechanics to Thermodynamics, Introduction to Polymers in Statistical Dynamics, and Biopolymers in Statistical Dynamics. Each section contains slides to be viewed in order and a few short movies (QuickTime) putting motion to an aspect of the lesson. This site may be best used by professors and students as a supplement to an existing course. [KR]
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Invertebrate Zoology
Dr. Gwen Pearson of Albion College has put together these Webpages for an Invertebrate Zoology course. For background information, the lecture syllabus includes a few online handouts; see the lab syllabus (online Lab Manual) for more detailed, though still under construction, online information. The heart of the site's content is listed under the Invert Lab section. In the Invert Image Gallery, users may learn about each phylum (Porifera through Mollusca) as well as the significance of morphological characteristics. Each section contains detailed information accompanied by color images. The Key Hints and Insect Order Spot ID sections offer suggestions on how to key out invertebrates. Several additional sections (such as Bug-In-Cup) relate directly to Dr. Pearson's class. However, other educators may find these approaches instructive. [LXP]
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General Interest

North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI)
Over the past decade, important strides have been made in the conservation and management of the Western Hemisphere's birds. For logistic efficiency, these efforts have been divided along taxonomic lines, resulting in several separate (albeit solid) visions for the future. The North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI) was launched in September 1999 to combine the effectiveness of these separate programs (the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, Partners In Flight, and the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network) by acting as "an agreement among organizations and agencies" such that, through collaboration, these agencies may "far exceed the total of their parts." The NABCI homepage describes the need for NABCI, provides background information on NABCI, the NABCI Strategy and Action Plan, Guiding Principles, and Key Action Items. Also at the homepage is a series of links to specific bird conservation projects, ranging from South America to the Arctic. Any professional or student of bird conservation will find this Webpage both highly instructive and relevant. [LXP]
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Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program [.gzip, .pkzip]
The global and regional maps found at the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program show the chances of seismic activity over the globe for the next 50 years. The maps, recently made available on the Internet through the Swiss Seismological Service, were created through the collaboration of hundreds of researchers worldwide. Available here are global and continental maps (Americas, Europe/ Africa/ Middle East, Asia, and Southwest Pacific) as well as other maps for more localized regions. Each map comes with an accompanying report. [KR]
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Freshwater Initiative -- TNC
Launched in 1998 by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the Freshwater Initiative aims "to protect the plants and animals dependent on freshwaters and develop solutions to key causes of freshwater biodiversity decline." To achieve this goal, Freshwater Initiative staff identifies sites that harbor critical aquatic biodiversity, targets conservation activities at several key freshwater sites, and develops expert and informative collaborations to foster freshwater conservation. The homepage is straightforward; the Strategies section outlines the Initiative's fundamental goals and approaches and identifies key regions of interest (see color map). The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) section describes IHA software (not free) used "to statistically characterize environmental regimes" (most commonly used by hydrologists and ecologists to evaluate streamflow data). Finally, a nice selection of links rounds out the site. [LXP]
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Bibliography of Publications from the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program -- USGS
This bibliography from the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program at the US Geological Survey (USGS) "contains citations of reports on research conducted under the auspices of the Program since the beginning of the Program." References to papers, reports, abstracts, and fact sheets can be found for field investigations of contaminated sites, methods development, investigations of contamination from non-point sources, and more. Hyperlinks to abstracts and publications located online make this an especially useful resource. Continuously updated, the bibliography has recently become even more useful with the addition of a search feature. [KR]
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Plant Conservation Alliance
Housed at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA) is a consortium of ten federal government agencies and 150 non-federal cooperators (including nonprofit organizations, resources management consultants, soil scientists, biologists, botanists, concerned citizens, gardeners, etc.). Together, Plant Conservation Alliance cooperators work "to solve the problems of native plant extinction and native habitat restoration." The homepage describes how the PCA functions, including general information, an events calendar, and online communication links. Also at the site are project descriptions, publications, and grant/ funding opportunities. [LXP]
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Current Awareness
(For links to additional current awareness on tables of contents, abstracts, preprints, new books, data, conferences, etc., visit the The Scout Report for Science & Engineering Current Awareness Metapage:

Millennium Bug found by CSIRO entomologists
CSIRO Entomology
Entomologists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO -- see Research section, above) have announced the discovery of the "real" Millennium Bug, belonging to a new genus of the family Veliidae (small water striders). The bug was found at several mountain streams of southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales and will be described in a forthcoming publication of the Australian journal Invertebrate Taxonomy. The CSIRO news release is provided above, followed by CSIRO's Entomology page. [LXP]
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Math Goodies Newsletter
From Mrs. Glosser's Math Goodies, this free monthly newsletter is currently sent by email to over 1,900 subscribers worldwide. The newsletter contains information about new lessons, site updates, math news, articles, and events. To subscribe, users should send their name and email address to Back issues are available at the site for browsing. [KR]
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New Publications

"Bristol Bay Sockeye Salmon Run & Catch Forecasts: Summary for Year 2000 Forecast" [.pdf, 548K]
Each year, researchers at the University of Washington (School of Fisheries) forecast the following year's salmon runs to Bristol Bay, Alaska. The report here (.pdf format) summarizes the forecast for Bristol Bay's 2000 sockeye salmon runs. The value of the report extends beyond its intended purpose and will useful to those interested in predicting populations under variable circumstances. [LXP]

"The Thinning of the Arctic Ice Cover" [.pdf]
The paper, "The Thinning of the Arctic Ice Cover," by Drew Rothrock, Yanling Yu, and Gary Maykut, posted on the University of Washington's Polar Science Center Webpage, expands on evidence that the Arctic climate is warming by using "submarine data to examine whether sea-ice thickness, or actually draft, in the Arctic Ocean is also changing." The paper appeared in the Dec. 1, 1999 issue of Geophysical Research Letters, and the full-text and the figures may be downloaded here (.pdf). The page also offers some accounts of thinning of Arctic ice in the popular press. [KR]

Practical Handbook for Population Viability Analysis -- TNC [.pdf]
Chapters 1-4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6-end
Leading scientists from several universities have put together this Practical Handbook for Population Viability Analysis (.pdf format) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC). The first four chapters may be downloaded from the first URL; chapter five from the second; and chapters six through the end from the third. [LXP]

CHEMINT99: Chemistry and the Internet, September 1999, Washington, DC
This free conference report by Dr. Wendy Warr of Wendy Warr & Associates describes many of the presentations at the 1999 Chemistry and the Internet Conference. Dr. Warr has amassed some "30 years experience in information systems and research computing including nearly 20 years in the pharmaceutical industry." A couple of the topics covered in this report include "Teaching Chemistry in the Electronic Age" and "Learning Polymer Science Over the Internet." The page contains hyperlinks, as well as a link to the conference Website where users may uncover more details. [KR]

"Coral Reefs and Climate Change" [.pdf, 1.95MB]
Patricia Glick of the National Wildlife Federation's Climate Change & Wildlife Program authored this October 1999 report entitled "Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Last Straw for a Threatened Ecosystem." The resource (.pdf format) is accompanied by color photographs. [LXP]

Scientific American Feature Article: "The Unexpected Science to Come"
This feature article from Scientific American, "The Unexpected Science to Come" by Sir John Maddox, looks at the next 50 years of scientific discoveries and comes to the conclusion that the most important discoveries will be ones we cannot foresee. The article addresses this topic through the lens of previous discoveries and the patterns they present. Within the text, key terms, names, and ideas are hyperlinked to other external pages containing further information. [KR]

"Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures: Agriculture" -- EPA [.pdf, .wp]
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Office of Water recently released this report (.pdf and .wp formats) entitled "Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures: Agriculture." In addition to results, the report presents detailed descriptions of sampling design, methods, and references. [LXP]

"Clean the Rain, Clean the Lakes: Mercury in Rain Is Polluting The Great Lakes" -- NWF [.pdf, 531K]
This report (.pdf format), from the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), describes recent findings indicating high mercury levels in rain falling over Chicago and other Midwestern sites. The report includes Actions Needed to Clean Up Mercury Emissions as well as a Campaign to Clean the Rain. [LXP]

Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective
Originally published in 1991 by Timber Press, this out of print book is now available on the Web. Edited by Rodney Heitschmidt and Jerry Stuth, Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective includes ten chapters, ranging from "Range Animal Nutrition" to "Social and Economic influences on grazing management." Also included are animal and plant species lists. [LXP]

Three from Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC)
"Influence of Agriculture on Aquatic Invertebrate Communities of Temporary Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA" [.zip]
"Foods of American Badgers in West-central Minnesota and Southeastern North Dakota During the Duck Nesting Season" [.zip]
"Biological Control of Leafy Spurge" [.zip]
The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted three new resources on their homepage. These include "Influence of Agriculture on Aquatic Invertebrate Communities of Temporary Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA" by Ned Euliss, Jr. and David Mushet; "Foods of American Badgers in West-central Minnesota and Southeastern North Dakota During the Duck Nesting Season" by Marsha Sovada1, Jon Roaldson, and Alan Sargeant; and "Biological Control of Leafy Spurge" by the US Department of Agriculture. All three may be downloaded as .zip files. [LXP]
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Job Openings in Science and Technology from The Chronicle of Higher Education
Although The Chronicle of Higher Education charges a fee to access the current week's job listings, extensive postings for the previous week are freely available. [LXP]

Physics Today: Classified Ads
Physics Today, the online magazine from the American Institute of Physics (AIP), has added a classified ads section. With links to AIP's other jobs listings, academic, government, and industry positions are posted here. [KR]

Geological Society of America Classified Ads
The Geological Society of America's classified ads section provides monthly listings of academic positions for specialists within geology. The listings offer detailed descriptions of the available jobs. [KR]
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Cooperative Programs with Mexico
The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Mexican Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources, and Fisheries (SEMARNAP) have combined forces to solicit proposals for projects that address "the conservation and sustainable use of Mexico's fish, wildlife and plant resources." Grant recipients must be nonprofit organizations (including "federal, state and local government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and public and private institutions of higher education") and may emphasize "development of human resources via short, medium, and long-term training programs; management of plant, fish or wildlife populations and their habitats and ecosystems; and/or management and transfer of information associated with the conservation of biological diversity." Proposals are due August 1, 2000. [LXP]

Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES): Earthquake Engineering Research Equipment
The National Science Foundation's Directorate of Engineering announces a program to create the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES). "The goal of the NEES Program is to provide a networked, national resource of geographically-distributed, shared-use next-generation experimental research equipment installations, with teleobservation and teleoperation capabilities, which will shift the emphasis of earthquake engineering research from current reliance on physical testing to integrated experimentation, computation, theory, databases, and model-based simulation." In an effort to develop experimental earthquake engineering research equipment, funding is being offered to US universities and colleges with a principle investigator who is a full-time faculty member. Letters of intent are due by March 31, 2000. [KR]

Nanoscale Modeling and Simulation
The National Science Foundation Directorate for Engineering has also announced "a small-group (three to five researchers each) initiative on research in engineering modeling and simulation at the nanoscale, with a focus on transdisciplinary research among various disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, material science, engineering, thermodynamics, mechanics, electronics, and others) and areas of nanoscale relevance (nanostructured materials, nanodevices, large surface area structures, optoelectronics, synthesis, processing and manufacturing, instrumentation, environment, and others)." The proposal deadline is April 10, 2000. [LXP]

Sloan Research Fellowships
From the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Sloan Research Fellowships are awarded to PhDs in chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer science, economics, neuroscience, or in a related interdisciplinary field. Candidates must be members of the regular faculty (i.e., tenure track) of a college or university in the United States or Canada, and must have received their degrees within the previous six years. Interested researchers should not directly apply, but must be nominated by department heads or other senior scholars. The deadline for nominations is September 15, 2000. [KR]
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The 2000 Benthic Ecology Meetings
The 2000 Benthic Ecology Meetings will be held at UNC-Wilmington, March 9-12, 2000. Co-hosted by SEERS (Southeastern Estuarine Research Society) and AERS (Atlantic Estuarine Research Society), the 2000 Benthic Ecology Meetings are also supported by NC SeaGrant and the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. Note that the Blue Crab Symposium will precede the meeting (March 7-9), and the Marine Chemical Ecology Symposium will run concurrently. Although the Webpage specifies an earlier deadline, abstracts and registration will be accepted until January 21, 2000. [LXP]

Seventeenth Symposium on Mathematical Programming
The Seventeenth Symposium on Mathematical Programming is to be held on the campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology and hosted by the School of Industrial and Systems Engineering in Atlanta, Georgia, August 7-11, 2000. Papers on all theoretical, computational, and practical aspects of mathematical programming are welcome. The presentation of very recent results is encouraged. The deadline for submission of titles and abstracts and the deadline for early registration will be March 31, 2000. [KR]

Western Nerve Net 2000
A Conference entitled Western Nerve Net 2000 (covering topics related to the fields of computational/ neuroscience) will be held from March 31 to April 2, 2000 at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana. The abstract deadline is February 1, 2000 (electronic submission requested); a small fee ($15 students, $35 faculty) is required for participation. [LXP]

The 198th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society
The 198th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society will take place October 22-27, 2000, at the Phoenix Civic Plaza and the Hyatt Regency Phoenix in Phoenix, Arizona. A list of preliminary topics is available at the site. Examples of topics include Applications of Fullerene Materials for Batteries and Fuel Cells, and Power Sources for the New Millennium, to name two. The deadline for abstracts is June 1, 2000. [KR]

Living on the Edge: Birds 2000 -- AOU
A joint meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), British Ornithologists' Union, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists will be held in St. John's, Newfoundland August 14-19, 2000. The conference is entitled Living on the Edge: Birds 2000, and planned symposia include Long-Term Population Studies, Fragmented Ecosystems, Species, Habitat and Human Conflicts and Resolutions, and Birds Foraging at Sea. Although deadlines have not yet been posted, interested participants may email the Chairperson, Bill Montevecchi ( [LXP]
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New Data

Three on Lightning Data
Lightning Ratios [.jpg, .pdf]
Daily Optical Transient Detector data
OTD Global Lightning Distributions
Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States. The second and third resources, from NASA, report Optical Transient Detector (OTD) data, in which a satellite detects lightning flashes across the globe for "daytime and nighttime conditions with a detection efficiency ranging from 40% to 65%, depending upon external conditions such as glint and radiation." Daily OTD data are provided for 1995-99, followed by summary data (annual, seasonal, monthly) of global lightning distributions for 1995-98/99. [LXP]
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The Atomic Line List
This latest version of the Atomic Line List, hosted by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Kentucky and maintained by Peter van Hoof of the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, provides "a compilation of approximately 923,000 allowed, inter-combination and forbidden atomic transitions." The database allows users to identify observed atomic absorption and emission features. The data are accessed through a query form, and the output format may be customized. The makers of this site request that researchers acknowledge the Atomic Line List (including the URL) if data are used in a paper. [KR]
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Average Dates of Last Spring Freeze -- USDA
Based on data from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC), the US Department of Agriculture released this interesting map showing average Last Spring Freeze dates and contour lines for the US. Contour lines are given for the eastern two-thirds of the continent, but the western third varies considerably (no contours). The analysis was completed by the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility (NOAA/USDA). [LXP]
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Total Renewable Freshwater Supply By Country
Hosted by the Pacific Institute's The World's Water site, this page from the book The World's Water 1998-1999: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources, by Peter H. Gleick, features a table of Total Renewable Freshwater Supply By Country. For each country, the table lists annual renewable water resources in cubic kilometers per year, the year of the estimate, and the source of the estimate. [KR]
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In The News

Wolves In Yellowstone
1. "Yellowstone Wolves Home Free, Court Rules"
2. "Mexican Wolf Prevails In Court"
3. "Wolves Roam the Rocky Mountains Amid Controversy" (1998)
4. Wolves: Wolf Recovery Programs -- Defenders of Wildlife
5. USFWS Endangered Species Home Page
6. Endangered Species Recovery Plans Online [.pdf]
7. American Farm Bureau Federation
8. International Wolf Center
Gray wolves once roamed throughout Yellowstone National Park, but for 60 years the majestic animals were not seen there again, and were listed as Endangered in 1967. In 1995 and 1996, under a provision of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), 66 wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone and central Idaho. The reintroduction marked an important victory for environmentalists but was followed by bitter opposition, spurred by the American Farm Bureau Federation. In 1997, a Wyoming District Court judge ruled that the reintroduction program was illegal, since some wild animals had allegedly been sighted by ranchers; the judge ordered that all wolves be removed. Following that contentious decision, environmentalists and the Department of the Interior filed a joint appeal in 1998. Last week, the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver unanimously overturned the lower court's 1997 ruling and stated that the wolves reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park will remain there. This recent ruling is seen as a boon for species recovery efforts nationwide and comes only two months after a separate federal court ruling dismissed an attempt by the New Mexico Cattlegrowers Association to end the Mexican Wolf reintroduction program. Claiming that wolves endanger livestock, ranchers and state farm bureaus oppose the five-year-old reintroduction program. However, a $100,000 Compensation Trust program (Defenders of Wildlife) is already in place to compensate ranchers at market value for all verified losses to wolves. This week's In The News highlights the Yellowstone wolf reintroduction program. The eight resources listed above provide background information and current status on the wolf recovery program.

The first three resources, from Environmental News Network (ENN), explain last week's ruling that Gray Wolves are to remain in Yellowstone National Park (1), a similar ruling regarding the Mexican Wolf (2), and the controversy surrounding wolf reintroductions (3). The next resource is provided by Defenders of Wildlife, one of the most effective nongovernmental organizations in the US for protecting native (and especially endangered) species. The Defenders of Wildlife Wolves: Wolf Recovery Programs pages (4) offer updated information on wolf recovery programs, with links to other wolf information. For information on endangered species and the Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) provides these helpful summary Webpages (5). Also from USFWS are these Endangered Species Recovery Plans, online from 1994 to 1998 (6). Note that the Plans will eventually include years from 1989 to present and may be searched (via your browser) by common or scientific species name. The American Farm Bureau Federation homepage (7) offers the rancher/ farmer view of wolf reintroduction. For further information on wolves and their status worldwide, see the International Wolf Center (a nonprofit organization) homepage (8). Here, users may track (online) wild wolves in the Superior National Forest, browse recent wolf publications, or register for an upcoming wolf symposium. [LXP]
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