The Scout Report for Science & Engineering - April 11, 2001

April 11, 2001

A Publication of the Internet Scout Project
Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison

The target audience of the Scout Report for Science & Engineering is faculty, students, staff, and librarians in the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Each biweekly issue offers a selective collection of Internet resources covering topics in the sciences, and related fields such as math and engineering, that have been chosen by librarians and content specialists in the given field of study.

The Scout Report for Science & Engineering is also provided via email once every two weeks. Subscription information is included at the bottom of each issue.

In This Issue


Learning Resources

General Interest

Current Awareness

New Data

In The News


Mesquite: A Modular System for Evolutionary Analysis
Drs. W. Maddison and D. Maddison of the University of Arizona have developed Mesquite, a newly available analytical tool for phylogenetic (evolutionary) data. Currently in beta-test form, Mesquite was created to function as a "general system for phylogenetic computing to which different programmers could contribute modules" and features a graphical interface. The homepage includes background information on the project, an explanation of Mesquite's capabilities, introductory tips on how to begin using Mesquite (including how it varies from other software), and guidelines for those interested in learning how to program modules. The authors encourage those who want to test out Mesquite to submit user feedback to help identify and rectify bugs. [LXP]
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The enormous is an umbrella site for sources of reference data and models for a range of earth science subdisciplines. With funding from various public foundations and institutions, this project supports the development and publication of physical and chemical reference models known as REM, GERM, and PACER; provides Web space for databases and modeling tools; and organizes workshops and special sessions at national and international meetings. Geochemical Earth Reference Model, or GERM, contains summary data on the geochemistry of petroleum reservoirs. Soon a feature by which users can contribute data to GERM will be available. PACER, sponsored by the Quest for Truth Foundation, the NSF, and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, supports software and modeling projects such as ArArCalc (an interactive interface to data reduction in 40Ar/39Ar geochronology) and TnT2000 (geochemical evolution models for the Earth using the Terra Nova Toolbox). A bathymetric seamount catalog based on the SeaBeam2000 cruises in the West and Equatorial Pacific Ocean is also available through PACER. Finally, Reference Earth Model (REM), still under construction, will bring together the work of many people and disciplines to "provide the geophysical community with a model (or a set of models -- various versions in one and three dimensions) that fits a great variety of geophysical constraints. The spherical average of the model should eventually replace the current PREM (Preliminary Reference Earth Model) that was created in 1981." The REM Webpage serves as the headquarters for the collection and distribution of data, models, and computer codes. A wealth of information exists at, so navigation can be tricky, but overall, the site will be a boon to geophysicists and others involved in earth system modeling. [HCS]
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Four Online Journals
Journal of Environmental Quality Online
Crop Science Online
Agronomy Journal Online
Soil Science Society of America Journal
HighWire Press
The American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America have announced online availability of four more journals, in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press. Online full-text content for the Journal of Environmental Quality begins with the January-February 2001 issue and will expand with each month's new issues. Online full-text content for Crop Science begins with the September-October 1999 issue, with online abstracts since January-February 1998. Online full-text content for the Agronomy Journal and Soil Science Society of America Journal begins with the July-August 1999 issue, with online abstracts from January-February 1998. Note that the free trial period for all four online journals ends May 1, 2001. [LXP]
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Tokamak Plasma Spectroscopy at LLNL
This research page from the High-Energy-Density Physics and Astrophysics Research Group of Lawrence Livermore Laboratories discusses Non-LTE atomic modeling, above ground experiments (AGEX), and their application to tokamak plasma spectroscopy. The principal tokamak plasma spectroscopy activities carried out by the group are studies of ionization and recombination rate coefficients and impurity radiative cooling. Research descriptions are accompanied by color graphs, diagrams, and photos. Relevant formulae and references are also featured. The site is an informative resource about the field of plasma physics. [HCS]
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Mammal Species of the World (MSW)
The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History provides this database of mammalian taxonomy. Based on a 1993 Smithsonian publication edited by D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder, the online database contains the scientific and common names (and associated reference records) for "the 4,629 currently recognized species of mammals." The database is organized by taxonomic hierarchy (Order, Family, Subfamily, and Genus) and is accompanied by a useful instructions page ("How to use the MSW") with hints on how to navigate the database. Typical returns include information on author; citation; common name, scientific name, and original name; distribution (text, and sometimes maps); type locality; type specimen; additional comments; and an option to search the directory of mammal specimens (Collections) housed at the National Museum of Natural History. As a reference tool, this database will be useful to researchers and students alike. [LXP]
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A great resource for professionals in the chemical industry, the ChemAlliance Website presents news and feature articles on regulation and compliance. ChemAlliance provides a wide range of tools to help users understand, evaluate, and comply with environmental regulations more effectively. A noteworthy portion of the site is the ChemAlliance Toolbox, a list of essential resources for understanding compliance regulations. Some examples from the list are a virtual plant tour, a current list of laws, and a glossary of terms. A search engine, help page, and discussion group round out this site. [HCS]
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Learning Resources

Biochemistry Companion Website
Academic publishing company Addison-Wesley provides this online Companion Website for the textbook Biochemistry, by Mathews, van Holde, and Ahern (Third Edition). The Companion Website contains Outlines, Concepts, Terminology, and Quizzing sections intended to complement the textbook and to assist students in the learning process. A major contribution of this Website is its hyperlinked structure, allowing students to navigate easily between chapters, concepts, color images, and concise descriptions. For educators and students of biochemistry alike, this online resource will be a helpful tool for reviewing the important concepts of general biochemistry. [LXP]
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Dictionary of Algorithms, Data Structures, and Problems
The National Institute of Standards and Technology has recently updated its online Dictionary of Algorithms, Data Structures and Problems. The dictionary takes the form of a hypertext alphabetical list of terms dealing with algorithmic techniques and functions (e.g., Ackermann's Function), data structures, archetypical problems (e.g., "traveling salesman"), and related definitions. Nice features of the site include a page of links to implementations (code) and some expanded definitions and diagrams for the terms. In addition to the complete alphabetical listing, the list of terms may also be viewed categorized by subject area or by type of term (graphs, trees, sorting, etc.). The site's manager, NIST computer scientist Paul Black, welcomes contributions and is particularly in need of terms in state machines, combinatorics, parallel and randomized algorithms, heuristics, and quantum computing. Note that this dictionary does not include algorithms particular to communications, information processing, operating systems, programming languages, artificial intelligence, graphics, or numerical analysis. Overall, however, it is a great resource for university students and researchers. [HCS]
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Guide to the Animal Kingdom for Students and Educators -- BIOSIS
Best known for its role in housing the world's largest collection of abstracts and bibliographic references in the biological/ biomedical literature, BIOSIS also has an online educational presence. This Guide to the Animal Kingdom introduces viewers to the Animal Kingdom via a simplified (and "somewhat abbreviated") classification scheme. Using a fairly traditional view of animal phylogeny (that which is followed by the Zoological Record), this site provides a hierarchical listing of the major groups of animals, as well as short notes, representative taxa, and links to additional sites. Given its abbreviated structure, this site will be most helpful as a review/ study aid. [LXP]
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Speleothem Microfabrics
Dr. Bruce Railsback of the University of Georgia's Department of Geology provides this online Atlas of Speleothem Microfabrics. Here he presents petrographic or electron microscope images of most known microfabrics found in stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones, and other chemically precipitated cave deposits. Notes Railsback, "Variation in the mineralogy, shape, size, clarity, orientation, and layering of crystals in speleothems provides a vast array of microfabrics in speleothems." The full color .jpeg images, some in cross-polarized light, are labeled and have descriptive, hyperlinked captions. The main sections of the Atlas are Coarse Spelean Calcite, Aragonite, Spelean Non-carbonate Minerals, Microcrystalline Calcite, Detrital Minerals, Biogenic Particles, Layers, Diagenetic Fabrics I, and Diagenetic Fabrics II: Diagenetic Columnar Calcite. Appendices, a bibliography, and a glossary round out the site. [HCS]
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RIPPLES: Research in Presentation Production for Learning Electronically
The University of Massachusetts at Amherst maintains this site on The RIPPLES Project (Research in Presentation Production for Learning Electronically), an initiative funded by the National Science Foundation to increase effectiveness in delivering stored course or training materials (e.g., class notes/ overheads, audio/ video) to students. Although the main emphasis of the site is on information dissemination technology for asynchronous learning environments, there are also several online courses in Computer Sciences, including short courses, tutorials, and graduate student classes. [LXP]
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General Interest

Science Snacks Online
Meet the Exploratorium museum's latest public educational resource, a site called "Science Snacks," an online compendium of science tidbits that pique the interest and satisfy the gee-whiz appetite. Whether seeking to understand Afterimage or Whirling Watcher, users will be drawn in by these brief and intriguing descriptions of scientific fact, with associated learning activities and Helpful Hints. Designed originally for local high school science teachers but used by educators at Universities and preschool alike, this fun site will stir the imagination of anyone -- from alley to lap cat. [LXP]
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Engineering Research Center Fact Sheets
Curious about the latest developments in bioengineering, microelectronics, or earthquake hazard reduction? Wondering what type of research your tax dollars support? Then have a look at this recent posting from the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Engineering Research Centers (ERC) Program which supports university research in partnership with industry. Here, users can access project descriptions from a variety of laboratories associated with the ERC. Examples of centers featured include Georgia Tech/ Emory Center for the Engineering of Living Tissues, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Center for Neuromorphic Systems Engineering, and Center for Advanced Engineering Fibers and Films, to name a few. The research pages, available in either HTML or .pdf formats, present research goals, collaborating institutions, facility overviews, technology transfer initiatives, educational outreach projects, and links to contacts. At many of the pages, color photographs and illustrations accompany text. So the next time you are taking a break from work, peruse the NSF's Engineering Research Centers Fact Sheets and get the latest news about federally funded research and technology. [HCS]
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"Endangered Cats of North America" [.pdf] -- NWF
This newly online report (.pdf format) from the National Wildlife Federation takes a comprehensive look at wild cat species of the US and the major threats to their survival. The report indicates that "many of North America's cats are threatened or endangered; others have declining populations or face a more distant threat of local and regional elimination due to human development and other activities." Specific consideration is given to roads, habitat loss/ degradation and fragmentation, and working with private landowners, in addition to species reintroductions, conservation needs, and recommendations. The report targets the general public, but the complexity of the issues inherent to wild cat conservation serves as useful fodder for academics as well. [LXP]
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Green Chemistry [Windows Media Player]
This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, green chemistry links (including conferences), and an online preview of the ACS-published book Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry are all found at the site. Five video clips on green chemistry from the standpoint of academia, industry, and small business are also featured (Windows Media Player). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students. Check back often for updates. [HCS]
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Vegetable MD Online
The Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University provides this online guide to vegetable diseases. A compilation of vegetable disease fact sheets, the site is organized by crop and offers photographic images and a description of each vegetable crop in healthy and diseased states. The site also includes an Online Glossary of Technical Terms in Plant Pathology and links to additional resources. [LXP]
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Current Awareness
(For links to additional current awareness on tables of contents, abstracts, preprints, new books, data, conferences, etc., visit the The Scout Report for Science & Engineering Current Awareness Metapage:

Shallow End For Amphibians
This news brief from Nature magazine summarizes a recent paper discussing the combined effects of climate change on declining amphibian populations. Summer climate (detrimental ultraviolet exposure) appears to be linked to spring disease (lethal fungal infections), placing the future of amphibian populations in jeopardy. Several other interactions may also influence survival, such as predator avoidance (higher in low-water pools), which may in turn lead to increased susceptibility of tadpoles to pesticide poisoning. [LXP]
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"Now Playing at a Star Near You: The Largest Sunspot in Ten Years Blazes away with Eruptions"
The region of the sun designated AR 9393 contains the largest known sunspot. The current solar cycle has brought this sunspot into full view. Large solar flares are associated with the AR9393 spot. An extremely large flare, or coronal mass injection, occurred last week. This page from NASA's Goddard Research Center gives the news story plus a bright, clear image of the sunspot. [HCS]
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New Publications

Summary Report: 1997 National Resources Inventory (revised December 2000) -- USDA
.pdf version
This December 2000 revision of the 1997 National Resources Inventory report describes changes in land use and erosion, and Palustrine and Estuarine wetland losses over the past several decades (through 1997). This .pdf document may be browsed online or downloaded for printing. [LXP]

US Patent Applications
The US Patent and Trademark Office has recently updated its patent database, adding access to the full text of all US patent applications since March 15, 2001. This is in addition to the full text of all patents issued since 1976. The site contains a database searchable by quick (two-term) or advanced Boolean protocol or by patent number. Containing applications from a wide range of technologies such as genomics, microchip engineering, and optics, the patent application database may prove useful both for scientists developing patents themselves and for those simply interested in the latest technological advances. [HCS]

Four more from The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center [.zip]
"Importance of Individual Species of Predators on Nesting Success of Ducks in the Canadian Prairie Pothole Region"
"The North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations"
"Assessing Factors That May Predispose Minnesota Farms To Wolf Depredation on Cattle"
"Evaluation of a Mallard Productivity Model"
The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted several more resources online. The first, by Douglas H. Johnson and colleagues, was originally published in 1989 in the Canadian Journal of Zoology [67:291-297] and evaluates the importance of predator activity, wetland conditions, and precipitation on nest predation rates. The second article introduces readers to The North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations and discusses availability and uses of the Center's databases and resources. The third article, by David Mech and others, attempts to "detect factors that might predispose farms in Minnesota to wolf depredations;" this paper was first published in 2000 in the Wildlife Society Bulletin [28(3):623-629]. Fourth, Douglas H. Johnson and colleagues review and suggest improvements to a mallard productivity model. Their article was originally published as a book chapter in Wildlife 2000: Modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates (J. Verner, M.L. Morrison and C.J. Ralph, eds.; Univ. Wisconsin-Madison Press). All four resources may be browsed online or downloaded as .zip files. [LXP]

ACM Crossroads Student Magazine
This is a free online version of ACM Crossroads, a student-run quarterly publication of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM). The theme of the Spring 2001 issue is databases, and the issue contains articles on resource allocation, Java database connectivity, object-relational systems, and more. Past themes have included wireless computing, intelligent agents, computer games, and law and ethics among others. Along with the regular journal content, ACM Crossroads posts links to resources for finding jobs and internships, a weekly What's New column, and reviews of books, conferences, software, videos, and Websites. The journal is always looking for student submissions and student editors as well. [HCS]

Potential Priority Watersheds for Protection of Water Quality from Contamination by Manure Nutrients -- NRCS [.pdf]
Robert L. Kellogg of the USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service wrote this paper on manure nutrient contamination and watershed protection. Originally presented at the Animal Residuals Management Conference in November 2000, the paper derives vulnerability indices from manure loading rates and environmental factors "to identify areas of the country that are potentially most at risk." The paper may be downloaded as a .pdf format. [LXP]

Single Electron Detection in Quadruple-GEM Detector with Pad Readout
This pre-print from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) demonstrates the detection of single electrons in ethane at 1 bar through the use of four GEMs operating in tandem and coupled to pad readout. The paper, available for download in .pdf or .ps format, presents "measurements of single electron pulse height distributions, total gas gain measurement and calculation, pad-to-pad cross-talk, quenching capability, high rate capability, charging effects, etc." [HCS]

Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change [.pdf, PostScript]
The National Research Council's Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations published this report in 2000. The National Academy Press Website offers free online viewing of this important publication, which evaluated the much-publicized discrepancy between surface and atmospheric temperatures in the global change records. The Panel found that "the warming trend in global-mean surface temperature observations during the past 20 years is undoubtedly real and is substantially greater than the average rate of warming during the twentieth century." [LXP]

A Strategy for Fighting Antibiotic Resistance -- ASM
The American Society for Microbiology posted this recent paper online, addressing the critical issue of how to fight antibiotic resistance. Several strategies to slow the development of resistance are presented. [LXP]
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Job Openings in Science and Technology from The Chronicle of Higher Education

Jobs in Atomic and Plasma Physics

Botanical Society of America: Jobs
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POST DOCS: National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory -- EPA
Deadlines: several

USGS Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research Fellowship
Deadline: May 18, 2001

Marine Fisheries Initiative (MARFIN): Financial Assistance for Research and Development Projects in Marine Fisheries -- NMFS
Deadline: April 23, 2001
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EPA Forum on Managing Contaminated Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites
May 30-June 1, 2001; Alexandria, Virginia
Registration & Reservations: Ongoing through April 27, 2001

International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique, and Applications (IUVSTA) Fifteenth Annual Vacuum Conference
October 29-November 2, 2001; San Francisco, California
Abstracts Due: April 16, 2001 (paper/fax) or April 23, 2001 (Web/ email)

Palaeozoics of Central Asia: Mongolia and the Altai Mountains of SW Siberia Joint Field Meetings of IGCP 410 AND IGCP 421
August 3-21, 2001; Novosibirsk, Russia (associated field trip: Ordovician-Early Carboniferous of the Altai Mountains)
August 21-September 6, 2001; Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (associated field trip: Ordovician-Early Carboniferous of SW Mongolia)
Abstracts Due: June 1, 2001

The European Society for Evolutionary Biology: Eighth Congress
August 20-25, 2001; Aarhus, Denmark
Deadlines for Abstracts and Early Registration: April 30, 2001

LISA Fifteenth Systems Administration Conference
December 2-7, 2001; San Diego, California
Abstracts Due: June 5, 2001

2001: An Entomological Odyssey -- Entomological Society of America
December 9-13, 2001; San Diego, California
Deadlines for Presentation Abstracts: June 26, 2001
Deadlines for Poster Abstracts: July 24, 2001
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New Data

Earth Observatory Data & Images: New Data -- NASA
NASA's Earth Observatory Data & Images page provides periodic updates on data availability. The seventeen datasets listed here include the many types of scientific data collected within the time period 1979-2001, with recent data on 4km2Fires, Ozone, and UV Exposure. By clicking on a specific time period and data type, the user is directed to the appropriate data selection. [LXP]
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Greenland 5 km DEM, Ice Thickness, and Bedrock Elevation Grids
The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has recently released a digital elevation model (DEM), ice thickness data taken by airborne ice penetrating radar, and bedrock thickness data (ice thickness subtracted from DEM) for 5 km of Greenland. The data are in ASCII format, and documentation (data collection, application, terminology, etc.) is available at the site. [HCS]
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Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database -- CDIAC [ARC/ INFO]
This newly online database from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) provides detailed geographically referenced information on "actual and potential biomass carbon (1 g biomass = 0.5 g C)" in tropical Southeast Asia (in 1980). These data are critical components of the larger effort to quantify the role of changing land use in greenhouse gas production. The database includes detailed information [ARC/INFO, ASCII formats] on vegetation, land use, and biospheric carbon content; helpful background and data descriptions help further orient the user. [LXP]
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Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island
Air samples from Lampedusa Island, located south of Sicily in the Mediterranean sea, were collected weekly from May 1992 through December 2000 and analyzed for carbon dioxide content. "On the basis of annual averages calculated from monthly averages, CO2 levels at Lampedusa Island have risen from 360.80 in 1993 to 371.27 in 2000. The data show an average trend of +1.5 ppmv/y." The data from the study, newly available this month from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), include a plot of mean carbon dioxide concentration (ppmv) against time and a text table of the annual mean values. Methods, notes, and references are also provided. [HCS]
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In The News

Climate Change and Politics: The US Abandons Kyoto
1. "US To Work On Climate Change, Not Kyoto Protocol, Administration Says" -- ENN
2. "Senate Budget Vote Rebuffs Bush on Global Warming" -- Washington Post
3. "EU Says Kyoto Could Be Refigured To Suit US" -- ENN
4. "US Facing Climate Isolation" -- BBC
5. "Global Warming FAQ" -- New Scientist
6. "The Politics Explained" -- New Scientist
7. Global Climate Change, Special Report -- BBC
8. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
9. Cambridge University Press (search for "Climate Change Impact on the United States")
Last week, the Bush administration announced that it would not sign the Kyoto Protocol, provoking harsh criticism around the world and in the US. Immediately following the Bush announcement, the Senate voted against Bush's wish to cut funding for climate change programs. The Kyoto Protocol, a 1997 addition to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, is an international agreement that seeks to curb global warming through several means, primarily by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases on a country-specific basis. Although a signed treaty would need to be ratified in order to take effect -- a big step which all parties agree contains uncertainty -- the important first step is to sign the treaty. Quite simply, without the Kyoto Protocol, there seems to be little domestic action to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, and no coordinated global approach. The countries that have signed the Protocol have made a public commitment to the future global environment by agreeing to impose unpopular restrictions on polluters at home. The Bush administration, however, has refused to sign, seeking a different "proactive solution" which currently exempts the US from regulation (the details of that proactive solution have yet to be revealed). Meanwhile, the Bush administration is justifying self-exemption in several ways: first, by highlighting the debate over whether global warming exists (a debate that many in the scientific community have abandoned, agreeing that global warming is indeed real, though its causes have yet to be established). Second, by claiming that existing US forests should exempt the US from regulatory actions because trees "soak up" unwanted greenhouse gases. One problem that the 84 nations/ signatories have with the US proposal is that it seems like a non-proposal; scientific experiments suggest that trees alone cannot curb global warming and that reductions in current emission levels are absolutely necessary (but can only be accomplished through strong political will). Perhaps more significantly, the refusal of the most powerful nation on earth to commit to the Kyoto Protocol, in contrast to the commitments of others, has sparked strong resentment abroad and from some US groups. The recognition that global warming could wreak havoc on earth's ecosystems (through sea level rise, spread of disease, unfavorable climate for agriculture, etc.) has led current signatories of the Protocol to seek new measures and greater flexibility, in order to encourage the US to sign. But the future of the Kyoto Protocol, and indeed, the willingness of nations to cooperate in a global effort to reduce pollution, is uncertain. This week's In The News takes a look at the recent events and provides background information on the Kyoto Protocol and the science behind global warming.

The first resource, from Environmental News Network (ENN), describes Bush's announcement that he will not sign the Kyoto treaty (1). This article (2) from the Washington Post describes the subsequent bipartisan Senate vote against Bush's wish to cut funding on climate change programs. In response to the Bush announcement, this ENN news brief describes how European Union leaders are working to encourage the US not to abandon the treaty (3). In this news brief, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) explores the potential for US isolation in the global market based on the refusal to sign (4). For information on the scientific process of global warming (5) and the politics of regulation and the Kyoto Protocol (6), these fact sheets from New Scientist provide helpful background information. Further general information on global warming and Kyoto, as well as a host of links to additional primary resources, are available at this special report from the BBC (7). Readers looking for a better understanding of the complexities inherent to the ambitious Kyoto Protocol should consult the Website of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) -- a body of several hundred distinguished scientists established by the United Nations -- which offers multiple authoritative documents and reports that describe the intricacies of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol (8). Among other topics, the IPCC reports describe the scientific basis for climate change; the potential impacts of climate change (effects on agriculture, forestry, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, hydrology and water resource management, human health, human infrastructure, financial services); the link between human actions and global climate (now described by the IPCC as "likely," and not just "possible"); and the capacity for nations to respond to global warming (wealth and infrastructure, etc.). Finally, although not yet available the day of this printing, a 150-page report entitled "Climate Change Impact on the United States," commissioned by Bill Clinton and based on documents released last November, is due to be published on April 12 by Cambridge University Press. We provide the Cambridge University Press URL here for viewer interest (9), although we cannot guarantee the promptness or availability of the report. [LXP]
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